Additional Research

Due to copyright laws, we cannot provide the full text of the studies.  You may find further information (abstracts) at PubMed, or you may contact the individual authors for further information. Alternatively, we have provided a suggested reading list for your use in further education on the subject of brainwave entrainment.

Studies that compared different experimental conditions against each other


Howard, C. E., Graham, L. E., 2nd and Wycoff, S. J., 1986. “A comparison of methods for reducing stress among dental students.” J Dent Educ. 50, 542-544.

Lane, J. D., Kasian, S. J., Owens, J. E. and Marsh, G. R., 1998. “Binaural auditory beats affect vigilance performance and mood.” Physiol Behav. 63, 249-252.

Leonard, K. N., Telch, M. J. and Harrington, P. J., 1999. “Dissociation in the laboratory: a comparison of strategies.” Behav Res Ther. 37, 49-61.

Morse, D. R. and Chow, E., 1993. “The effect of the Relaxodont brain wave synchronizer on endodontic anxiety: evaluation by galvanic skin resistance, pulse rate, physical reactions, and questionnaire responses.” Int J Psychosom. 40, 68-76.

Ossebaard, H. C., 2000. “Stress reduction by technology? An experimental study into the effects of brainmachines on burnout and state anxiety.” Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 25, 93-101.

Rosenfeld, J. P., Reinhart, A. M. and Srivastava, S., 1997. “The effects of alpha (10-Hz) and beta (22-Hz) “entrainment” stimulation on the alpha and beta EEG bands: individual differences are critical to prediction of effects.” Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 22, 3-20.

San Martini, P., Venturini, R., Zapponi, G. A. and Loizzo, A., 1979.” Interaction between intermittent photic stimulation and auditory stimulation on the human EEG. Preliminary investigation through power spectral analysis.” Neuropsychobiology. 5, 201-206.

Williams, J., Ramaswamy, D. and Oulhaj, A., 2006. “10 Hz flicker improves recognition memory in older people.” BMC Neurosci. 7, 21.

Williams, J. H., 2001. “Frequency-specific effects of flicker on recognition memory.” Neuroscience. 104, 283-286.

 

Studies with music as controls


Joyce, M. and Siever, D., 2000. “Audio-Visual Entrainment (AVE) Program as a Treatment for Behavior Disorders in a School Setting.” Journal of Neurotherapy. 4, 9-25.

Kliempt, P., Ruta, D., Ogston, S., Landeck, A. and Martay, K., 1999. “Hemispheric-synchronisation during anaesthesia: a double-blind randomised trial using audiotapes for intra-operative nociception control.” Anaesthesia. 54, 769-773.

Padmanabhan, R., Hildreth, A. J. and Laws, D., 2005. “A prospective, randomised, controlled study examining binaural beat audio and pre-operative anxiety in patients undergoing general anaesthesia for day case surgery.” Anaesthesia. 60, 874-877.

Wahbeh, H., Calabrese, C. and Zwickey, H., 2007a. “Binaural beat technology in humans: a pilot study to assess psychologic and physiologic effects.” J Altern Complement Med. 13, 25-32.

Wahbeh, H., Calabrese, C., Zwickey, H. and Zajdel, D., 2007b. “Binaural beat technology in humans: a pilot study to assess neuropsychologic, physiologic, and electroencephalographic effects.” J Altern Complement Med. 13, 199-206.

Vichitvejpaisal, P., 2012. “The Effect of Binaural Beat Audio on Operative Anxiety in Patients Undergoing Local Anesthesia for Ophthalmic Surgery.” (Publication in a peer-reviewed journal is forthcoming)

Studies with glasses, no photic stim as controls


Kumano, H., Horie, H., Kuboki, T., Suematsu, H., Sato, H., Yasushi, M., Kamei, T. and Masumura, S., 1997. “EEG-driven photic stimulation effect on plasma cortisol and beta-endorphin.” Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 22, 193-208.

Nomura, T., Higuchi, K., Yu, H., Sasaki, S., Kimura, S., Itoh, H., Taniguchi, M., Arakawa, T. and Kawai, K., 2006. “Slow-wave photic stimulation relieves patient discomfort during esophagogastroduodenoscopy.” J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 21, 54-58.

Solomon, G. D., 1985. “Slow wave photic stimulation in the treatment of headache–a preliminary report.” Headache. 25, 444-446.

Berg, K., and Siever, D., 2009. “A controlled comparison of audio-visual entrainment for treating Seasonal Affective Disorder.” Journal of Neurotherapy 13.3 (2009): 166-175.

 

Other studies with controls (with no exposure)


Budzynski, T., Jordy, J., Budzynski, H., Tang, H. and Claypoole, K., 1999. “Academic Performance Enhancement with Photic Stimulation and EDR Feedback. Journal of Neurotherapy.” 3, 11-21.

Patrick, G. J., 1996. “Improved neuronal regulation in ADHD: An application of fifteen sessions of photic-driven EEG neurotherapy.” Journal of Neurotherapy. 1, 27-36.

 

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